Terms and Definitions

An umbrella term, generally encompassing sexual crimes against children where the primary motivation is sexual in nature and not commercial. CSE is form of child sexual abuse where another person uses any combination of physical or emotional coercion or enticement to sexually abuse or exploit the child. CSE can occur in person or remotely online or any combination of both. CSE can take many forms including CSAM, LSSE, and TCSO. 

CSAM is the Production, Distribution, and/or Possession of visual depictions of a child or of children being sexually assaulted or exploited (actual or simulated). It is considered CSAM if a child is depicted in a lewd of lascivious display of the genitalia whether the offender is in-person or remote. 

LSSE occurs when an offender with access to minor children sexually exploits them live on camera for an offender remotely. If the arrangement involves a commercial transaction this becomes a form of Child Sex Trafficking. 

A TCSO occurs when a person travels across an interstate or international boundary to engage in illicit sexual conduct with a minor. A TCSO is an in-person offense. A TCSO is CSE when the arrangement is not commercial, or a commercial act cannot or is difficult to prove. A TCSO can be Child Sex Trafficking if a commercial act is transacted for the sexual act.

Also referred to as Sextortion , this is a form of CSAM where an offender remotely entices/coerces a minor to engage in sexual conduct and the offender records that conduct and then utilizes the threat of release or distribution of the material to extort the minor into engaging in more egregious conduct. The CSAM produced by the offender is often then distributed by the offender to other offenders or posted in Darknet forums. 


Terms and Definitions

Trafficking that is perpetrated by an unrelated individual who intentionally develops a relationship with the child, which they later use as leverage to facilitate the exploitation.

Trafficking that is perpetrated by a gang or member of a gang.  Gangs instill fear and loyalty in the child victim by leveraging their organizational structure, violence, and local, national, and international networks.

Trafficking that is perpetrated by a relative or individual who has a familial-type relationship to the child. Examples of non-relatives perceived by the child to have a familial relationship to them may be a family friend they refer to as an “aunt” or “uncle”.

Trafficking that is perpetrated without an identified trafficker.  In these cases, the buyer exploits the child victim’s vulnerabilities directly by offering money, food, and/or shelter in exchange for CSAM.


Below are some common risk factors that may increase the chances of a child becoming the victim of Child Sexual Exploitation. This list is not exhaustive, and many of these risk factors may be present on their own or appear co-morbidly.





National Human Trafficking Hotline

Call 1-888-373-7888
Text 233733
A21 International Report Website
What do you do if someone threatens to share your intimate images? Learn More
NCMEC Cybertipline Report Learn More


NCMEC Support Team Learn More
Call 866-305-HOPE (4673) to talk to a Team HOPE member.   This will go to a recorded line where they need to leave information about the type of victimization.  In this case Sextortion for money.  A Team HOPE member will call them back. Learn More


Get help. Text “THORN” to 741741.
Confidentially speak with a trained counselor. They will help you move from a hot moment to a cool moment and are trained to support people in crisis.


Crisis Text Line Text Now


All State Child Abuse and Neglect Hotlines


NCMEC Connect: trainings, webinars, printed resources, etc. related to child exploitation (requires registration) LINK

Information on Sextortion LINK

Information on Removing the Sextortion Content LINK

Online Safety Resources For All Ages LINK

Age range specific content: LINK  



Tennessee Department of Health Resources
Human Trafficking Information, Stats, etc. Click Here
A21: Downloadable Educational Guides for Everyone
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Learn More
USCIS: Resources for Victims of Human Trafficking and Other Crimes
DHS Blue Campaign: Identify a Victim